A yarn formed by twisting together two or more plied yarns.
The single basic ingredient in the production of Type 6 nylon. Caprolactam has a chain of six carbon atoms. It is a petrochemical.
Odorless gas commonly sourced by respiration, and has been widely used as a measure of the ventilation adequacy of a space. A principle greenhouse gas. It is the result of the oxidation (including active combustion and respiration) of carbon based substances.
total amount of greehouse gas emissions caused by a product.
A colorless, odorless and highly toxic gas commonly created during combustion.
A charge on fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) based on their carbon content. When burned, the carbon in these fuels becomes carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the chief greenhouse gas.
Any substance capable of causing or aggravating cancer.
The step after blending in the staple spinning process which combs out the loose fibers and arranges them in orderly strands called sliver. Sliver is drawn and blended, then twisted and further drawn into yarns.
See "Modular carpet."
The maximum population size of a given species that an area can support without reducing its ability to support the same species in the future.
Cationic dyeable nylon
Nylon polymer that has been modified chemically to make the fiber receptive to cationic (basic) dyes. Cationic dyeable yarns are used in conjunction with acid dyeable yarns to produce multicolors in piece dye methods.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
A measure of the oxygen required to oxidize all compounds, both organic and inorganic, in water.
Chlorofluorocarbons, a very stable family of organic chemical compounds, are comprised of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. Because of their stability, these compounds can migrate to the stratosphere, where they are broken down by more intense short wavelength UV light into fragments that destroy ozone. These compounds are also greenhouse gases.
An exposure which spans long time periods _ typically years. In toxicology, a chronic health effect is the result of a long term exposure; e.g., emphysema as a result of smoking.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) provides lists of endangered species of timber and other natural products.
Clean Air Act
A federal statute enacted in 1963 that was the first of a series of acts and amendments that exerted increasing federal pressure on air polluters to clean up their emissions.
The systematic incorporation of life cycle environmental considerations into product design.
Clean Water Act
A federal statute enacted in 1972 that has been successful in improving the water quality of lakes and rivers.
The ability or degree that a stain is removed from a carpet.
The temperature, humidity, precipitation, winds, radiation, and other meteorological conditions characteristic of a locality or region over an extended period of time.
Refers to a change in average weather conditions.
Part of an industrial production process; not part of a waste management process. Materials reclaimed and returned in a closed-loop process are neither classified as, defined as, nor operate as, a waste, i.e., any discarded material. Materials in a closed-loop process are treated as commodities in a manner designed to avoid loss or release to the environment (See Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR), 40 C.F.R. _ 261.4(a)(8)).
A recycling system that uses a "closed-loop process." See "closed-loop process" Not to be confused with "horizontal recycling". See "horizontal recycling."
The simultaneous production of electrical or mechanical energy (power) and useful thermal energy from the same fuel/energy source such as oil, coal, gas, biomass or solar.
The proper coordination of color and shade. Critical to color matching are: (1) The light under which the colors are compared. (The light source being used in the real conditions of the commercial environment should be used to match colors.) (2) The surface texture of the object being matched (cut pile carpet can appear darker than loop made of the same yarn). (3) The surface luster of the object being matched (higher yarn luster can look darker than lower luster fibers).
A specific tufting machine developed by Card-Monroe Corp. that yields the look of a printed carpet in tufted manufacturing methods.
The ability of a fiber or carpet to retain color when exposed to (1) ultraviolet light, (2) crocking (wet or dry) , (3) atmospheric conditions, and (4) washing.
Matching of colors within acceptable tolerances, or with a color variation that is barely detectable to the naked eye.
Process by which the operating systems of a building are tested and adjusted prior to occupancy.
Comparative Risk Analysis
An environmental decision-making tool used to systematically measure, compare and rank environmental problems or issue areas. The process typically focuses on the risks a problem poses to human health, the natural environment and quality of life, and results in a list (or lists) of issue areas ranked in terms of relative risk.
A situation where niche overlap is very great and competition is so intense that one species eliminates another from a particular area.
Process whereby organic wastes, including food wastes, paper and yard wastes, decompose naturally, resulting in a product rich in minerals and ideal for gardening and farming as a soil conditioner, mulch, resurfacing material or landfill cover.
Compostable Product Claims
"Competent and reliable scientific evidence that all materials in the product or package will break down into, or otherwise become part of, usable compost (e.g., soil conditioning material, mulch) in a safe and timely manner in an appropriate composting program or facility, or in a home compost pile or device (16 C.F.R _ 260.7 (c))."
Amount of a material per unit volume (i.e. milligrams per liter).
Preserving and renewing, when possible, human and natural resources. The use, protection and improvement of natural resources according to principles that will ensure their highest economic or social benefits.
A preservation tool that may be used by a land trust or conservation group to limit development.
A human-made habitat for waterfowl and other life, often using greywater or rainwater catchment overflow.
(1) The carpet manufacturing method, usually tufted, woven or bonded. See also "Fusion Bonding." (2) The term also can refer to the specific details of a particular carpet.
Construction Administration (CA)
The representation of the owner relative to the integrity of the design.
Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris
Nonhazardous materials such as asphalt, concrete, brick, lumber, wallboard, roofing materials, ceramics, and plastics resulting from construction, deconstruction, remodeling, repair, cleanup, or demolition operations.
The use of goods and services, materials and energy, by humans.
Any physical, chemical, biological or radiological substance or matter that has an adverse effect on air, water or soil.
Introduction into water, air and soil of microorganisms, chemicals, toxic substances, wastes or wastewater in a concentration that makes the medium unfit for its next intended use. Also applies to surfaces of objects, buildings, and various household and agricultural use products.
Contingent Valuation Method (CVM)
A method that attempts to "objectively" measure the dollar value of changes in environmental quality; often uses questionnaires and other surveys that ask people what they would pay for various environmental improvements.
An on-going program of structured commissioning throughout the lifetime of a building.
Dyeing of carpet (greige) while it travels continuously through a dye range. The process is frequently referred to by the name of one of the prime machinery manufacturers, Eduard Kuster (pronounced "Kooster"). Continuous dyeing can produce multicolored or solid-colored carpet. Multicolored carpet is achieved by using yarns of varied dye affinity, or with various accessories that can give a pattern or overprint. Advantages include large dye lots, relatively low cost and color flexibility. However, this method is more critical than beck dyeing or yarn dyeing for side-to-side matching consistency (the carpet must be installed in roll sequence).
Unbroken strand of synthetic fiber, such as filament nylon or olefin. Nylon and olefin are made by extruding molten polymer through a spinnerette (similar to a showerhead). The fibers are cooled, then stretched and textured into bundles referred to as yarn. This yarn can be plied or commingled with other yarn and then tufted.
The process of applying heat to yarns to "set" or retain bulk, twist and spring introduced by spinning and/or twisting. Continuous heatsetting can be applied to staple or continuous filament yarns. The two primary types of continuous heatsetting equipment are the Superba, which uses steam and pressure, and the Suessen, which uses dry heat. See "Heatsetting."
Power produced from non-renewable fuels such as coal, oil, nuclear and gas, also known as traditional power.
An intermediate that usually buys raw fiber, processes it to a carpet manufacturer.
A marketable by-product from a process. This includes materials that may be traditionally defined as wastes such as industrial scrap that is subsequently used as a raw material in a different manufacturing process.
The yarn numbering system based on length and weight originally used for cotton yarns and now employed for most staple yarns. It is based on a unit length of 840 yards, and the count of the yarn is equal to the number of 840-yard skeins required to weigh one pound. Under this system, the higher the number, the finer the yarn. A typical carpet yarn might be a three cotton count two-plied, written as 3.0/2c.c.
Term used to describe how well the fiber covers/hides the primary backing in tufted carpet construction.
Derived from the "Cradle-to-Grave" design methodology but ensures that end-of-life will result in materials that will become nutrients or feedstock for recycling into other valuable products.
Design methodology that takes into account all stages of the life cycle (raw material extraction through end-of-life disposal) of a product, service, or building early in the design process.
The rack or frame located behind a tufting machine which holds the cones of pile yarn that feed into the needles of a tufting machine.
CRI (The Carpet and Rug Institute)
A national trade association representing the carpet and rug industry.
In fiber, a nonlinear configuration, such as a sawtooth, zigzag or random curl relative to the fiber axis. Most synthetic fibers, both staple and filament, used in carpets are crimped. Fiber crimp increases bulk and cover and facilitates interlocking of staple fibers in spun yarns. See "Texturizing."
A list of air pollutants identified in the 1970 Clean Air Act Amendments deemed to be critical in controlling air pollution and for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were established. Criteria pollutants include: sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), particulate matter, carbon monoxide (CO), and lead (Pb).
The resistance of transfer of colorant from the surface of a colored yarn or fabric to another surface, or to an adjacent area of the same fabric, principally by rubbing.
The removal of dye from a fabric by rubbing. Crocking can be caused by insufficient dye penetration or fixation, the use of improper dyes or dyeing methods, or insufficient washing and treatment after the dyeing operation. Crocking can occur under dry or wet conditions.
The shape of a fiber when cut perpendicularly to its axis. Man-made fiber cross sections vary to produce a wide variety of physical effects such as soil-hiding characteristics, soil releasing, luster, and fineness or coarseness. Hollow filament fiber shapes are highly engineered and are among the most advanced filament cross sections. The delta is among the most advanced staple cross section.
The collapsing of pile yarns, resulting in carpet matting and loss of resilience. This form of carpet failure usually occurs in the areas of heaviest traffic. It is also called "matting" and "walking out." It can be minimized by the use of more resilient fibers, denser construction, and somewhat higher weight, and (in cut pile) higher tuft twist and proper heatsetting.
Cubic ft./min. (CFM)
Cubic feet per minute, a common measure of airflow.
The three-dimensional crimp patented by INVISTA for its BCF yarn. This texture is added to the yarn by a series of air jets. See "Texturizing." Curvilinear crimp gives consistency, bulk and spring-back memory that is needed in the manufacture of cut pile filament carpets and streak-free loop carpets.
Carpet having a cushion, padding or underlay material as an integral part of its backing.
Cut and loop pile
Carpet whose face shows a pattern, either geometric or floral, made up of a combination of loop pile tufts and cut pile tufts. The carpet can be dyed solid or multicolored.
A pile surface created by cutting the loops of yarn in a tufted, woven or fusion-bonded carpet.
CYP / Computer Yarn Placement
A tufted carpet alternative to woven carpets developed by Tapistron; It allows color to be applied in specific areas of the pattern similar to what is achieved with Axminster carpet designs.